1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
2 Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Riley Children’s Hospital, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.
3 division of Pediatric intensive care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
4 Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Bambino Gesù, Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
5 Department of Respiratory Therapy, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
6 Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, CHU Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
seven division of Pediatric intensive care Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.
*See also p. 1163.
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Supported, in part, by the Endowed Chair, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.
Dr. Lindell is supported by the Thrasher Research Fund. Dr. Fitzgerald is supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) K23DK119463. Dr. Rowan is supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) K23HL150244. Dr. Flori is supported by NHLBI R01HL149910 and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) R21HD097387. Dr. Napolitano is supported by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) R18HS024511 and has research or advisory relationships with Drager, Smiths Medical, Philips/Respironics, Actuated Medical and VERO-Biotech. Dr. Nishisaki is supported by AHRQ R18 HS024511. Drs. Fitzgerald, Rowan, and Flori received support for researching articles from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Rowan’s facility received funding from the NHLBI (K23HL150244). Dr. Flori’s facility received funding from the Society of Critical Care Medicine; she disclosed that she was an unpaid advisor to Aerogen Pharma, an unpaid board member of the Michigan Medical Society, and an unpaid executive committee member of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators Network. Dr. Nishisaki’s facility received funding from AHRQ (R18HS024511 and R03HS026939); he received research support for articles from the AHRQ. The other authors disclosed that they had no potential conflict of interest.
Address requests for reprints to: Robert B. Lindell, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104. E- email: [email protected]